RESEARCH PAPER
RELATIONS: AGRICULTURE – ECONOMY IN THE THEORY OF ECONOMICS
 
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Instytut Ekonomiki Rolnictwa i Gospodarki Żywnościowej - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy
Submission date: 2020-10-06
Final review date: 2020-10-08
Acceptance date: 2020-10-20
Publication date: 2020-12-22
 
Zagadnienia Ekonomiki Rolnej / Problems of Agricultural Economics 2020;365(Special Issue 4):33–60
 
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ABSTRACT
The paper discusses the position of agriculture in the economy at various levels of economic development and in various schools of economic theory. The complexity of the analyzed area is a consequence of the fact that agriculture is one of the first forms of conscious and organized human activity. Its importance for society and economy results from the main goal of this activity, which is to satisfy the basic human need, the need to satisfy hunger. The study depicts three basic perspectives from which agriculture is presented in economic theory: (i) relations between agriculture and other sectors of the economy, (ii) the main forces shaping the mechanism of changes and the development of agriculture, and (iii) basic directions (paths) taking place in a time of changes in agriculture. In the second part of the paper, one of the three main perspectives illustrating the position of agriculture in the economy and in the theory of economics, i.e., the relations between agriculture and other sectors of the economy, was subject to empirical verification. The assessment was carried out on the example of Polish agriculture and its evolution over time. The analysis covers the changes that occurred after 1950 in areas such as the potential of agriculture in the economy (land, labor, and capital resources), the contribution of agriculture to creating added value (GNI/GDP), agricultural production, participation in foreign trade and changes in food consumption.